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Internationalisation of Higher Education and Global Mobility
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Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

Internationalisation of Higher Education and Global Mobility


2014 paperback 320 pages, £28.00
ISBN 978-1-873927-42-7

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About the book

This book was the winner of the CIES Higher Education SIG Best Book Award for 2015, and has recently been included in the European Association for International Education’s ‘Top 10 absolute must-reads for international higher education professionals

Continuous and rapid developments in global higher education today more than ever before present new questions, greater challenges, and vast new opportunities for institutions, policy makers, scholars and students alike. This book is a collection of studies and essays by many of the leading experts in international higher education who share their analysis of current trends and the implications they see for present and future policy and practice.

     The volume is organized into three sections that address, first, global, supranational concerns in internationalization and mobility; second, focus on specific cases in Europe, the Middle East, the United States, Africa, Asia, and Latin America; and third share profiles of individual institutions, practitioners and participants involved in uniquely shaping international education in their everyday practice. The intention of this book is to expand the scope of research in the field of Comparative and International Education, to facilitate theory development, to influence policy formation, and most of all to inform anyone fascinated by the evolving and dynamic processes related to educational internationalization and global mobility.

     This book will be a valuable information source for scholars, policy makers and students intent on understanding the wide scope of factors that today are shaping the fluid and changing global higher education landscape.

Contents [Please click on author name for summary]

Foreword (Simon Marginson), 7-9

Bernhard Streitwieser Introduction. Internationalisation of Higher Education and Global Mobility, 11-18


Rahul Choudaha, Hane de Wit Challenges and Opportunities for Global Student Mobility in the Future: a comparative and critical analysis, 19-33

Darla K. Deardorff Why Engage in Mobility? Key Issues within Global Mobility: the big picture, 35-42

Jane Knight Three Generations of Crossborder Higher Education: new developments, issues and challenges, 45-58

Angeline M. Barrett, Michael Crossley, Titanji Peter Fon North–South Research Partnerships in Higher Education: perspectives from South and North, 59-71

Joan Dassin, Jürgen Enders, Andrea Kottmann Social Inclusiveness, Development and Student Mobility in International Higher Education: the case of the Ford Foundation International Fellowships Program, 73-86


Bernd Wächter Recent Trends in Student Mobility in Europe, 87-97

Thomas Nørgaard Liberal Education in the Erasmus Programme, 99-118

Justin J.W. Powell International National Universities: migration and mobility in Luxembourg and Qatar, 119-133

Anthony Welch Seek Knowledge Throughout the World? Mobility in Islamic Higher Education, 135-149

Jonathan Z. Friedman, Cynthia Miller-Idris Gateways and Guest Homes: how US area studies centers serve as arbiters of scholar mobility, 151-167

Rose C. Amazan When the Diaspora Returns: analysis of Ethiopian returnees and the need for highly skilled labour in Ethiopia, 169-185

Jürgen. Henze Global Climate, Local Weather: perspectives of internationalisation in Chinese higher education, 187-207

Anne Hickling-Hudson, Robert F. Arnove Higher Education and International Student Mobility: the extraordinary case of Cuba, 209-228


Anthony C. Ogden, Bernhard Streitwieser, Emily R. Crawford Empty Meeting Grounds: situating intercultural learning in US education abroad, 229-258

Bernhard Streitwieser, Zachary van Winkle The Erasmus Citizen: students’ conceptions of citizenship identity in the Erasmus Mobility Programme in Germany, 259-286

Jos Beelen The Other Side of Mobility: the impact of incoming students on home students, 287-299

Lisa Loberg, Val D. Rust Key Factors of Participation in Study Abroad: perspectives of study abroad professionals, 301-311

Notes on Contributors, 313-320

Foreword (Simon Marginson)

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Introduction. Internationalisation of Higher Education and Global Mobility
Bernhard Streitwieser

The essays in this book aim to further expand the study of mobility by situating it more broadly within the phenomenon of the internationalisation of higher education today. It is hoped that the discussions in this book will make a valuable contribution to expanding the scope of research in the field of Comparative and International Education and ultimately facilitate further theory development and policy formation as we witness the continuing and dynamic processes of internationalisation of higher education and global mobility.

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Challenges and Opportunities for Global Student Mobility in the Future: a comparative and critical analysis
Rahul Choudaha, Hane de Wit

The pace, directions and outcomes of international student mobility are significantly influenced by a complex interplay of multiple push and pull variables. While outward mobility of international students has grown at a steady pace, it masks the changing nature of the growth and external factors that influenced it. The changing context of the global knowledge economy has transformed and continues to transform the nature of student mobility. The focus of this chapter is to discuss the future of global student mobility with a comparative and critical perspective. First, comparative analysis of mobility from key source countries and to key destination countries is discussed, with an emphasis on the role of economic environment, immigration policies and demographic shifts. In addition, the relationship between international student recruitment and skilled migrants is presented. Second, a critical analysis of the role of mobility in the larger framework of internationalisation is presented, addressing topics such as types of mobile students, the language factor, mobility by level and area of study, and other factors (reputation, costs, cross-border delivery) as well as study abroad as part of the home degree. Finally, we conclude with future directions of student mobility.

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Why Engage in Mobility? Key Issues within Global Mobility: the big picture
Darla K. Deardorff

Universities engage in mobility to what end? Mobility is more than simply moving people around the world. What are universities hoping to achieve through mobility programs? This article explores key issues surrounding global mobility including access, assessment, and balance. Research can play a key role in helping universities understand these bigger picture issues connected with internationalization of higher education.

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Three Generations of Crossborder Higher Education: new developments, issues and challenges
Jane Knight

Internationalization is one of the major forces impacting and shaping higher education as it changes to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century. One aspect of internationalization which is particularly important and controversial is crossborder education. Academic mobility has moved from people (students, faculty, scholars) to program (twinning, franchise, MOOCs, virtual) and provider (branch campus, binational universities) mobility and now to the development of international education hubs. Crossborder education has gradually shifted from a development cooperation framework, to a partnership model, and now to a commercial and competitiveness model. The purpose of this chapter is to explore the rationales, scope, and scale of the three generations of crossborder education. The first part examines how the multifaceted phenomenon of crossborder education relates to internationalization in general and provides a working definition. The three generations of crossborder education are analyzed in the second part so as to provide a basic understanding of program and provider mobility and the recent positioning of countries as education hubs. Attention is given to examining the rationales and perspectives of different stakeholders – students, foreign institutions and host country institutions. The last section discusses important emerging issues, challenges, and unintended consequences related to crossborder higher education.

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North–South Research Partnerships in Higher Education: perspectives from South and North
Angeline M. Barrett, Michael Crossley, Titanji Peter Fon

This chapter looks at the theme of internationalisation in higher education from the perspective of North–South cross-cultural collaboration and research capacity-building. It draws on the authors’ experience of a collaboration which was directed towards strengthening teaching of research methods to postgraduate students. The project demonstrated how North–South research partnerships in higher education can create new possibilities for epistemology and pedagogy. In the Southern university, the dominance of an over-specified ‘scientific’ epistemology was challenged. In the Northern institution, pedagogic relations between academic staff and international research students were challenged. Dialogue over the nature of educational research and acceptable/legitimate forms of knowledge within North–South collaborations can be uncomfortable, as contestations and disagreements surfaced. The authors argue for mindfulness of influence of colonial heritage and of a global contemporary context where ‘big science’ approaches to research have a growing influence on modes of international collaboration.

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Social Inclusiveness, Development and Student Mobility in International Higher Education: the case of the Ford Foundation International Fellowships Program
Joan Dassin, Jürgen Enders, Andrea Kottmann

This chapter argues that strong disparities in access and success continue to mark higher education systems at the national, regional and global levels, including persistent inequalities in access to global student mobility. The case of the Ford Foundation International Fellowships Program (IFP), assessed through a decade-long formative evaluation, illustrates how greater social inclusiveness in international education can be achieved by providing educational services and support systems for students from marginalized communities.

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Recent Trends in Student Mobility in Europe
Bernd Wächter

This chapter, exploring developments in student mobility inside, into and out of 32 European countries, is based on the recent study Mapping Mobility in European Higher Education of the Academic Cooperation Association. It deals with methodological issues of international data collection and data definition, and it presents the current picture and development of both credit and degree mobility in Europe as a whole, as well as in individual European countries. Its main empirical finding is that Europe as a whole is a very ‘mobility-active’ world region, but that there are dramatic differences between individual countries.

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Liberal Education in the Erasmus Programme
Thomas Nørgaard

In this essay the author explores the ideals and realities of the Erasmus Programme. His starting point is the educational vision of Sofia Corradi, an Italian educator who was instrumental in getting the Erasmus project off the ground in the 1980s. If we hold on to her thoughts about liberal education, culture, peace and social justice, the programme design immediately makes good sense. From this perspective, however, we may come to see Bologna as a process that undermines the Erasmus Programme. We may also come to wonder if Erasmus of Rotterdam really is a good patron of the programme. The author suggests that the cultural philosophy of J.G. Herder may provide a better philosophical grounding for Corradi’s educational thought. Finally, he argues that Corradi’s vision for Erasmus has one significant flaw: it is too optimistic about our ability to learn from travelling. For that reason, the current institutional means do not quite suffice to achieve her admirable educational ends. There is more work to be done.

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International National Universities: migration and mobility in Luxembourg and Qatar
Justin J.W. Powell

Located in small states with extraordinary migration flows, the University of Luxembourg and Qatar University reflect global norms relating to research universities. Each has opened its doors widely in recent decades to scholars and students from around the world. Higher education in both countries relies to a considerable extent on global mobility; indeed, the international dimension of higher education is a precondition for their development. Elaborated internationalisation strategies characterise the universities in Luxembourg and Qatar, embedded in hyper-diverse and very wealthy nation-states as well as in significant regional and global networks. In these two cases, the ‘national’ flagship universities are thoroughly ‘international’. These recently founded universities rely on global scientific collaboration, without which higher education and science could not flourish. Likewise, these young international national universities facilitate the accelerating global reach of higher education and science as they systematically foster the worldwide recruitment, cross-border mobility and multicultural networks of faculty, staff and students.

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Seek Knowledge Throughout the World? Mobility in Islamic Higher Education
Anthony Welch

While Southeast Asia as a region is generally poorly represented in scholarship on higher education, this is even more the case when considering Islamic higher education in the region. While patterns of mobility within the Islamic world are ancient, with medieval scholarly centres such as Baghdad, Cairo and Alexandria attracting scholars and students from many parts, scholarly mobility in Southeast Asia also has its own history. The earlier part of the chapter concentrates on the flowering of Islamic scholarly centres, with a particular focus on mobility. Subsequently, contemporary Islamic higher education in Southeast Asia, particularly in countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia, is analysed, focusing particularly on international mobility patterns, particularly of students. This includes both regionalism (students from within Southeast Asia travelling to other countries within the region to pursue Islamic higher education) and efforts by countries such as Malaysia to recruit significant numbers of students from the Gulf states and Arab world, thereby reversing traditional paths of mobility.

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Gateways and Guest Homes: how US area studies centers serve as arbiters of scholar mobility
Jonathan Z. Friedman, Cynthia Miller-Idris

International mobility is central to the study of the world’s cultures; yet, the quotidian ways in which it is fostered among scholars and university students are little understood. Focusing on the case of area studies centers – centers at American universities for the study of world regions – this chapter examines how these academic units serve as arbiters of global mobility, by serving both as gateways and as guest homes. In these dual and reciprocal roles, they facilitate fieldwork abroad for the students and faculty from their campuses, and host scholars from their regions of study in the USA. Drawing on a large cache of interviews with directors and administrators at 25 area studies centers from eight American universities, this chapter offers insight into the institutional factors that promote and constrict the flow of scholars across national borders. This chapter offers a unique contribution to existing scholarship, as rather than present mobility as an individual decision, this study explores the institutional dynamics that constrain the ways in which mobility is organized and facilitated. These processes are necessary to comprehend if internationalization as a broad project is to be advanced.

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When the Diaspora Returns: analysis of Ethiopian returnees and the need for highly skilled labour in Ethiopia
Rose C. Amazan

The changing nature of international skilled migration may allow developing countries that have been victimised by brain drain to regain some control over the way it impacts them. The two giants of India and China, for example, have benefited in different ways from the shift from brain drain to brain gain. Despite the successes of some countries in mobilising their diaspora and the rapid growth of technology, many countries still struggle to counteract the flight of skilled personnel; Ethiopia is one such country. Ranking first in Africa in terms of the rate of loss of human capital, it has yet to find an effective strategy to manage the comings and goings of its skilled professionals. However, Ethiopia’s desire to join the global knowledge economy has pushed the government to massively expand higher education. Such ambitious targets, however, have placed further strain on the meagre-skilled personnel resources. These facts suggest that mobilising the skilled diaspora to contribute to national development would benefit Ethiopia both socially and economically. However, the findings suggest lack of policies to strengthen the government’s relationship with Ethiopian professionals in the diaspora is a barrier to engagement. This chapter discusses Ethiopian diaspora mobility and the barriers they encounter in contributing, including after having returned. It focuses attention on the potential impact that the Ethiopian skilled diaspora can have on educational development.

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Global Climate, Local Weather: perspectives of internationalisation in Chinese higher education
Jürgen. Henze

Internationalisation of higher education in China has become a hot topic in international comparative research, in education as well as across disciplines. Despite vast numbers of publications on the topic already, this chapter introduces basic elements of the state-of-the-art discussion as it is taking place outside of China, as well as perspectives from the discourse occurring within China. The chapter takes Jane Knight’s definition of internationalisation as a starting point for classification of certain elements of internationalisation, but then proposes an enlargement of the scope of her definition by introducing the term ‘reflexive internationalisation’ in reference to Beck’s theory of reflexive modernity. Reflexive internationalisation represents the enlightened analysis of processes, structures and interrelatedness (dependencies) of intended action within the frame of global internationalisation and its critical reflexive analysis. This analysis also includes various kinds of reach-out ‘influences’ of internationalisation strategies in cross-national and cross-cultural perspectives. The chapter provides an overview of developments in Chinese state-controlled internationalisation in higher education and the regional and institutional variations in strategy and policy outcomes.

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Higher Education and International Student Mobility: the extraordinary case of Cuba
Anne Hickling-Hudson, Robert F. Arnove

This chapter considers the extraordinary case of Cuba in promoting international student and scholarly mobility. It outlines the Latin American context, and examines Cuba’s role as a regional and international ‘hub’ for university and polytechnic education that attracts thousands of international students to apply for places and Cuban-provided scholarships each year. The chapter considers whether the Cuban approach illustrates an alternative to the traditional forms of international student mobility. It discusses the character and features of the type of higher education that internationally mobile students receive in Cuba, and the nature of programs in which Cuba shares the work of its highly-trained professionals in collaborative projects with other countries. It examines this model of internationalism in higher education in the context of a global system of international student flows to other countries that can be considered educational ‘hubs’, and raises the question of the extent to which the Cuban model has the potential of countering the incentives offered by countries of the Global North towards the emigration and ‘brain drain’ of international students and professionals from the Global South.

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Empty Meeting Grounds: situating intercultural learning in US education abroad
Anthony C. Ogden, Bernhard Streitwieser, Emily R. Crawford

This chapter challenges MacCannell’s view of the contact between hosts and guests as ‘empty meeting grounds’ by drawing upon insights gained from the larger body of existing research to critically examine the meeting grounds of education abroad. The authors critique the various programming components that have traditionally been lauded as intercultural spaces where transformative learning takes place (i.e. student accommodation, classroom settings, etc.) and challenge long-held notions about whether these meeting grounds deliver on their promises. They examine how the meeting grounds have changed in response to globalization and the internationalization of higher education and then present positionality, reciprocity, and intentionality as three new frontiers through which to better situate intercultural learning in education abroad.

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The Erasmus Citizen: students’ conceptions of citizenship identity in the Erasmus Mobility Programme in Germany
Bernhard Streitwieser, Zachary van Winkle

Since the Erasmus Mobility Programme was established in 1987, a primary goal has been to develop in participants a European citizenship identity. While establishing and strengthening this identity through Erasmus has long been a policy goal and is anecdotally presumed to occur, empirically determining a causal link has been challenging and controversial. Scholars debate whether students predisposed to supporting Europe self-select into the programme and thereby demonstrate European mindedness, or whether as a result of participating in the programme students develop a greater sense of European-mindedness. The research presented in this chapter pre-empts this debate by addressing a more fundamental question that must first be asked: How do Erasmus participants even interpret the notion of citizenship identity – be it local, national, regional, European or global – and are they convinced that participating in Erasmus can play an important role in developing their conception of identity? Based on a qualitative analysis of 1308 responses to open-ended items on a survey administered to Erasmus participants from 34 European countries at 14 institutions throughout Germany for a semester or a year, this study looks at the identity question within the German context. The findings are analysed with reference to Gaertner and Dovidio’s Common Ingroup Identity Model and the discussion concludes with the suggested emergence of an ‘Erasmus Citizen’.

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The Other Side of Mobility: the impact of incoming students on home students
Jos Beelen

This chapter explores the role and value of incoming student mobility for Internationalisation at Home. I present two projects from the United Kingdom and Australia, countries with a long tradition in recruiting international students, and three from the Netherlands, where a growing number of programmes are delivered in English. The comparison shows that, while the underlying aim may be to internationalise the curriculum for all students, priority is given to accommodating international students and home students become marginalised. The author argues that incoming student mobility will not have an impact on the receiving institution as a whole and that traditional (physical) incoming mobility has limited value for Internationalisation at Home. New forms of mobility, combining physical with virtual and outgoing with incoming, may better serve to provide the international experience for all students that traditional incoming mobility fails to deliver, but that a new generation of students may expect.

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Key Factors of Participation in Study Abroad: perspectives of study abroad professionals
Lisa Loberg, Val D. Rust

Despite the many demonstrated benefits of a study abroad experience, trends in campus internationalization, and initiatives to promote international education, participation in study abroad by US college students remains at 1 2%. Low participation, however, is not due to lack of student interest. Previous research has compared intent, motivation, and characteristics of participants versus non-participants, and a number of barriers, both real and perceived, have been shown to impact student mobility. The current study seeks to identify ways to overcome barriers by exploring factors that lead to participation in study abroad. While previous studies have focused on the student, the current study gathers the unique perspectives of professionals who work in the field of international education and have experience at successful institutions. Findings indicate that faculty support and curriculum/academic integration are key factors that lead to student participation in study abroad. The current study suggests that rather than targeting the many barriers that prevent participation, outreach efforts to garner faculty support may be more effective. Furthermore, working towards curriculum/academic integration of study abroad can create an institutional culture that supports study abroad, thereby eliminating barriers and ultimately leading to greater participation rates for US students.

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Notes on Contributors

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Notwithstanding cross-border tensions and one-way imperial projects, and the fact the world continues to be ordered as a zero-sum configuration of nation-states, processes of globalisation seem to be unstoppable. We are moving closer towards a single world society, a momentous historical development. Global mobility of persons is ever growing. Ideas move synchronously from one institution to the next. For the globally connected elite in the major cities, a world society already exists. More broadly, half of the world’s population is now engaged in mobile phone networks, a technical precondition for universal society. One polity is much further off. Globalisation is uneven. Some nations and cities are more engaged than others. But none can remain outside the process.

   Nowhere are global convergence and partial integration more apparent than in higher education and knowledge. A single system of networked research universities has emerged, subject to global mapping, comparison and ranking, though other parts of education are more solely localised and mostly remain decoupled from global circuits. Research universities remain embedded in localities while subject at the same time to both national policy, financing and regulation, and also global linkages, movements and comparisons.

   It is sometimes suggested that globalisation may have peaked and a more separated higher education world may reassert, but this is wishful nostalgia. Consider what have been the major developments affecting national education systems in the last decade or so. There have been four such developments; and all are changes occurring at the global level: through global comparisons, or global systems, or shifts in the global balance of power in education and science.

   First, there is the growing impact on policy and practice in secondary schooling, of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development’s Programme for International Student Assessments (PISA) of the educational achievement of 15-year-olds, which has become the principal performance indicator for school-level education bureaucrats and ministers. Not all countries are focused on lifting their PISA scores, but many are. Some such as South Korea have implemented major programs focused specifically on lifting reading, science or mathematics achievement. There is intense international interest in systems such as Finland, Korea and Shanghai that are doing especially well in PISA. This is leading to a spate of policy borrowing.

   Second, there is the rise and rise of university rankings, especially research rankings. Global university rankings were a minor item when the first Shanghai Jiao Tong University top 500 league table was issued in 2003. They have ballooned in importance and are now front-page news in many countries. Research persistently shows that, despite the shortcomings of this form of cross-border comparison, rankings are highly influential with families and students in decisions about international education. They also affect the esteem (and often the revenue) given to universities by governments, industry and philanthropy, and shape patterns in the cross-border movements of academic faculty. Global rankings inexorably push governments and universities alike towards the model of the comprehensive Anglo-American science university that makes up the ranking template. They drive mergers designed to secure critical mass and offshore recruitment designed to lift citation rates. University ranking has become perhaps the chief performance indicator for ministers of higher education, and university presidents/rectors/vice-chancellors.

   Third, there is the advent of Mass Open Online Course (MOOC) programs in September 2011 at Stanford University. Through the for-profit corporations Coursera and Udacity at Stanford, and edX run by MIT and Harvard, MOOC offerings and enrolments have grown extraordinarily rapidly. It is already apparent that this is a major game-changer in worldwide higher education. MOOCS offer programs from global brand universities that feature leading world experts. Students’ work is assessed using multiple-choice online software, and the minority of students who complete the program successfully receive certification at its end. MOOCS also provide scope for social networking between students. As a free platform with user-navigated content and social interaction, they are perfectly attuned to the Web, unlike other online prototypes that tend to replicate the bricks and mortar university in a virtual form. As free and certified programs from prestigious universities, they are an attractive alternative to any program in any mode that charges tuition fees. MOOCs may radically reduce the average cost of teaching, lower the number of academic faculty in many countries and weaken the position of universities that are prestigious at national level but left in the shade by the global giants. MOOCs also promise to further increase the global power and authority of the leading US universities, thus compounding the normalising effects of rankings. Both trends push us in the direction of greater global standardisation.

   Finally, consider the growing weight of higher education and science in East Asia and Singapore. There used to be two major zones in worldwide higher education and science: North America, and Western Europe and the United Kingdom (UK). After 1970 Japan was added as the outrider. Now there are three such zones. Already the Post-Confucian systems in East Asia – China, Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan, South Korea and of course Japan – invest as much in R&D as do the whole of Europe and the UK. Published journal papers are increasing by 17% a year in China and already the total paper output in that country is half the level of the United States. Quality (as measured by citation rates) lags behind quantity but is improving rapidly. Already China produces more than 10% of the world’s most-cited top 1% papers in both engineering and chemistry. Science output in Korea, Singapore and Taiwan is also growing rapidly. World-class universities are advancing in all these systems. These outputs reflect the investments of five to ten years ago and, given that funding of the leading universities continues to increase, the rise of Asian science will continue. In turn this ensures that universities in the East will attract ever more talent from all over the world. In a radical transformation of the Atlantic and European domination of the last three centuries, in future much of the world’s knowledge will come from East Asia. The rise of higher education in East Asia, amid dynamic modernising economies, is leading to a more plural world in which the cultural mix will be more diverse. MOOCs and rankings assert American domination. This process of pluralisation is working in the opposite direction. There are also signs that universities in parts of western Europe are becoming stronger in relative terms.

   These are the four headline developments – PISA comparisons, global university rankings, MOOCs and the rise of new higher education powers – but there are many more signs of internationalisation and globalisation discussed in this book. Mobility and knowledge convergence affect universities and their personnel everywhere. All non-English-speaking nations are caught up in the new hegemony of English-language science and of the American models of universities and systems. All face the same tensions between global pluralisation and standardisation, tensions that are differently (and differentially) manifest in every national and local case.

   Internationalisation of Higher Education and Global Mobility is a fine collection that provides an unparalleled insight into these different aspects of globalisation in higher education. The book tracks the main trends through different spatial lenses: in terms of the world as a whole, in terms of the main regions and particular national and institutional sites, and in terms of the implications for cross-border relations of power and for social inclusion. Several chapters also rework our conventional tools of interpretation, particularly in relation to mobility of persons and of educational institutions and programs. The chapters in this book will deepen the scholarship of international higher education and guide us towards stronger empirical research projects in future.




Rose Amazan is a lecturer in the Faculty of Education and Social Work, University of Sydney. Her research and teaching is in the area of comparative education and development studies. She has conducted research on the Ethiopian skilled diaspora with a strong focus on skilled female diasporas. Her research experience spreads across themes of education and belonging, skilled migration, diaspora mobility, knowledge transfer, female skilled migration/mobility and knowledge. She is currently working on a research project looking into the impact of AusAID scholarships on development in sub-Saharan Africa.

Robert F. Arnove works in the field of comparative and international education. He has been the lead co-editor of major textbooks in this field over the past 30 years. A major focus of much of his scholarship has been on educational and social change. His most recent single-authored book, Talent Abounds, explores the role of master teachers in cultivating peak performance in the arts and athletics. Although his principal region of interest has been Latin America and the Caribbean, he also has worked in China, India and Africa, as well as in several European countries.

Angeline M. Barrett is a lecturer in education in the Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol. She has conducted research in sub-Saharan Africa on teacher professionalism, social justice perspectives on education quality, capacity-building in higher education, and language and teaching. She is currently associate editor of the International Journal of Educational Development.

Jos Beelen is a researcher and consultant on internationalisation of the curriculum at the Centre for Applied Research on Economics and Management at the Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences. He is chair of the Special Interest Group Internationalisation at Home of the European Association for International Education and Visiting Fellow at Leeds Metropolitan University’s Centre for Academic Practice and Research in Internationalisation. He is currently doing research into the implementation of the international dimension into higher education curricula, in cooperation with researchers from Europe and Australia.

Rahul Choudaha is Director of Research and Strategic Development at World Education Services (WES) in New York. At WES, a non-profit with over 40 years’ expertise in international education research and evaluation, he leads advisory services for higher education institutions ( and international students ( Dr Choudaha is passionate about leveraging research to uncover strategic insights that can help institutions develop and implement internationalisation plans in an inherently complex, competitive and changing environment of global higher education. He specialises in student mobility trends with implications for enrolment management and transnational education strategies. Dr Choudaha is an Editorial Board member of the Journal of Studies in International Education and a recipient of the Tony Adams Award for Excellence in Research by the European Association of International Education. He has presented in nearly 75 sessions at professional conferences. He earned a doctorate in higher education from the University of Denver, a Master’s degree in management and a Bachelor of Engineering degree from India. He also blogs as and tweets @DrEducationBlog.

Emily Crawford is an Assistant Professor in Educational Leadership and Policy Analysis. She earned her doctorate in educational theory and policy with a minor in comparative and international education from Penn State University, where she focused on issues affecting educational equity for undocumented students. Her research interests include international immigration and education policy, looking at how educational leaders and teachers advocate for vulnerable students’ access to education, and how education policy intersects with educators’ professional and personal ethical codes.

Michael Crossley, AcSS, is Professor of Comparative and International Education, Director of the Research Centre for International and Comparative Studies at the Graduate School of Education, Director of the Doctor of Education Programme and Director of the Education in Small States Research Group (, University of Bristol, UK. He is a former editor of the journal Comparative Education and former chair of the British Association for International and Comparative Education. Key research interests relate to: theoretical and methodological scholarship on the future of comparative and international education; the international transfer of educational policy and practice; educational research capacity and international development cooperation: and educational development in small states.

Joan Dassin was the founding Executive Director of the Ford Foundation International Fellowships Program (IFP), responsible for developing IFP’s original design and guiding its implementation in 22 participating countries from 2000 13. In June 2011, she received the Marita Houlihan Award for Distinguished Contributions to International Education (NAFSA: Association of International Educators). She currently holds positions as Senior Associate Member, St Antony’s College, and Visiting Research Associate, Centre for Latin American Studies, University of Oxford. Her research interests include access and equity in international higher and education reform and social mobility in Latin America. She has published articles in the Academic Cooperation Association Papers on International Cooperation, the Chronicle of Higher Education and Inside Higher Education. She recently collaborated on an edited volume entitled Origins, Journeys and Returns: social justice in international higher education (Social Science Research Council, 2009). She holds a PhD from Stanford University in modern thought and literature.

Darla K. Deardorff is a research scholar at Duke University, as well as Executive Director of the Association of International Education Administrators, a national professional organisation headquartered at Duke University. Founder of ICC Global, a global research network on intercultural competence, she has lived, taught and worked in Germany, Japan and Switzerland and has taught at numerous universities including Harvard University’s Future of Learning Institute. She has published widely on intercultural and international education topics, including as editor of The SAGE Handbook of Intercultural Competence (Sage, 2009), and is regularly invited to speak and consult around the world on these topics. Other recent books include lead editor of The Sage Handbook of International Higher Education (Sage, 2012) and co-author of Building Cultural Competence (Stylus, 2012).

Hans De Wit is Director of the Centre for Higher Education Internationalisation (CHEI) at the Università Cattolica Sacro Cuore in Milan, Italy, and Professor of Internationalisation of Higher Education at the School of Economics and Management of the Hogeschool van Amsterdam, University of Applied Sciences. He is also Research Associate at Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. He is the founding editor of the Journal of Studies in International Education (Association for Studies in International Education/SAGE publishers). His latest book is Darla Deardorff, Hans de Wit, John D. Heyl and Tony Adams (Eds) (2012) The SAGE Handbook on International Higher Education. He publishes a monthly blog in University World News on internationalisation of higher education ( He has (co-)written several other books and articles on international education and is actively involved in assessment and consultancy in international education for organisations like the European Commission, UNESCO, World Bank and IMHE/OECD. In 2005 06, he was a New Century Scholar of the Fulbright Program Higher Education in the 21st Century, and in 1995 and 2006 a visiting scholar in the USA and in 2002 in Australia. Hans de Wit is founding member and past president of the European Association for International Education (EAIE). Currently, he is a member of the Board of Trustees of World Education Services (New York), member of the ESL TOEFL Board. He is also a jury member for several awards, such as the Tony Adams Scholarship Awards, the Internationalization through Technology Award of the American Council on Education and SUNY COIL, and the IEASA Awards Committee for Excellence in Internationalisation.

Jürgen Enders is Professor at the School of Education at the University of Southampton, UK, having previously worked as the Director of the Center for Higher Education Policy Studies in the Netherlands. His research interests are in the areas of the political sociology of higher education, research and innovation; the governance and management of higher education; organisational change in higher education; the student experience, employability and graduate careers; and the academic profession. He is elected member of the Academia Europaea and of the German Academe of Science and Engineering; and member of advisory committees to the Higher Education Funding Council in England and the German Ministries for Education. He has written and (co)-edited 14 books and published more than 100 articles in books and journals on higher education.

Titanji Peter Fon is Associate Professor in Leadership in Schooling and presently serving as Vice-Dean in charge of Studies and Students’ Affairs in the Faculty of Education, University of Buea, Cameroon. His research interests are in educational policy and implementation, institutional leadership, school culture, governance and equity issues in education. He is also interested in the changing environments of educational organisations and leadership implications. He teaches in the areas of sociology of education and educational administration, planning and policy.

Jonathan Z. Friedman is a PhD candidate in international education in the Steinhardt School of Culture, Education and Human Development at New York University. His research interests include the sociologies of education, knowledge, nationalism and globalisation. Since 2010, Jonathan has served as a research assistant on a multi-year project looking at the production of knowledge on world regions in the American university, housed at the US Social Science Research Council. He is currently focusing on a comparative study of university administrators’ perspectives on internationalization at elite and mass institutions in the US and Britain.

Jürgen Henze has been Professor of Comparative Education at Humboldt University of Berlin since 1993. His research expertise is in Asian education with special reference to Chinese education. His main interest in teaching and research is on modernisation and educational developments in East Asia, the theory and practice of cultural sensitivity (training), as well as non-Western approaches of intercultural communication and competence formation.

Anne Hickling-Hudson specialises in cross-cultural, comparative and international education in Australia’s Queensland University of Technology. Now retired, she continues as Professor of Education in an adjunct capacity. Born and raised in Jamaica, Anne was educated at the Universities of the West Indies and of Hong Kong, and gained her PhD at the University of Queensland in Australia. Her career as a teacher, teacher educator, researcher, education planner and community activist spans the Caribbean, the UK, the USA, Hong Kong and Australia. A Rockefeller Fellow, her publications include analysis of education for development and decolonisation, of race relations in schools and texts and of intercultural and postcolonial approaches. She co-edits a book series and an online journal focusing on postcolonial studies in education. She is past president of several scholarly associations including the World Council of Comparative Education Societies and the British Association for International and Comparative Education.

Jane Knight, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, focuses her research on the international dimension of higher education at the institutional, national, regional and international levels. Her work in over 65 countries with universities, governments and UN agencies helps to bring a comparative, development and international perspective to her research, teaching and policy work. She is the author of numerous publications on internationalisation concepts and strategies, quality assurance, institutional management, trade, education hubs and crossborder education. She is the co-founder of the African Network for Internationalization of Education and sits on the advisory boards of several international organisations, universities and journals. In 2010 the University of Exeter awarded her an Honorary LLD, in 2011 she was the recipient of the Outstanding Researcher Award from the European Association for Institutional Research and in 2013 she was awarded the Gilbert Medal from Universitas 21for her contribution to higher education internationalisation.

Andrea Kottmann is a Senior Researcher at the Center for Higher Education Policy Studies at the University of Twente in the Netherlands. In her work she has been specialising on the evaluation of fellowship or funding programmes for postgraduate education. Andrea has also been doing research on the development of higher education professionals in teaching and learning in European universities. Currently she is involved in research on the reform of doctoral training across Europe. In addition she is interested in the later careers of the highly qualified and their transitions to the labour market.

Lisa Loberg is Director of Study Abroad and a senior lecturer of French at California Lutheran University, where she has overseen the creation of a study abroad centre and the expansion of international programmes and partnerships. She serves on the advisory board for the American Institute for Foreign Study and International Studies Abroad, and is a founding member of the Lessons From Abroad organisation, which provides programming and resources for study abroad returnees. She received her EdD from the University of California, Los Angeles and her MA in French from Boston College.

Simon Marginson is Professor of International Higher Education at the Institute of Education, University of London, UK, where he has worked since October 2013. Previously he worked as Professor of Higher Education at the University of Melbourne, Australia (2006-13). He is joint editor-in-chief of the journal Higher Education and a commissioning editor for Thesis Eleven. A widely published and cited scholar, he focuses primarily on globalisation and comparative and international higher education, including international students, the effects of university ranking systems, policy approaches to STEM, and higher education and science in East Asia. His current research includes a comparison of the ‘public good’ or social role of universities in seven countries. His books include Markets in Education (1997), the co-authored The Enterprise University (2000), Global Creation (2010), Imagination (2010), International Student Security (2010) and edited and co-edited Prospects of Higher Education (2007), Handbook of Higher Education and Globalization (2011), Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific (2011), Tertiary Education Policy in Australia (2013) and The Dawkins Revolution 25 Years on (2013).

Cynthia Miller-Idriss is Associate Professor and Program Director of the International Training and Education Program at American University and is also a research associate at the Social Science Research Council in New York. A sociologist by training, Miller-Idriss works on nationalism and extremism in contemporary Europe and on the internationalisation of higher education in the United States. Prior to her arrival at American University in 2013, she spent 10 years on the faculty at New York University and is in residence in 2013 14 at the Morphomata Center for Advanced Studies at the Universität zu Köln.

Thomas Nørgaard received a DPhil in philosophy from Oxford in 2002. Since then he has been a faculty member at the European College of Liberal Arts (ECLA), now Bard College Berlin. For a decade he was also a part of ECLA’s administration, first as Programme Director, then as Co-Dean of the College and Academic Affairs/Managing Director. In 2013 14, he will be a Visiting Professor at the Artes Liberales Faculty at Warsaw University and a Research Fellow at the Remarque Institute at New York University. His primary interests are ethics, value theory and the philosophy of education. He is currently working on a book about liberal education in Europe.

Anthony C. Ogden is Executive Director of Education Abroad and Exchanges and an adjunct Assistant Professor in Educational Policy and Evaluation Studies at the University of Kentucky. Ogden earned his Bachelor’s degree from Berea College and his Master’s degree in international and intercultural management at the SIT Graduate Institute. He completed his PhD at Pennsylvania State University in educational theory and policy with a dual title in comparative and international education. A career international educator, Ogden’s research interests and scholarly work have focused on education abroad outcomes assessment, global citizenship and academic development.

Justin J.W. Powell, PhD, Freie Universität Berlin, is Professor of Sociology of Education at the University of Luxembourg. His main fields of interest are sociology of education, special and inclusive education, higher education and science systems, social inequality and disability studies. Recent publications include Barriers to Inclusion: special education in the United States and Germany (Paradigm Publishers, 2011), Soziale Ungleichheit: Klassische Texte zur Sozial-strukturanalyse (Campus Verlag, 2009; co-edited with Heike Solga & Peter A. Berger) and Comparing Special Education: origins to contemporary paradoxes (Stanford University Press, 2011; co-authored with John G. Richardson), which received an AERA Outstanding Book Award (2012).

Val D. Rust is Professor of Education at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). He received his PhD from the University of Michigan in education studies. He recently served as the faculty chair of the Graduate School of Education and Information Studies and served for many years as the Director of the International Education Office at UCLA, which houses the Education Abroad Program, the Travel Study Program, non-University of California study abroad providers and other student exchange programmes. He is also Director of the Center for International and Development Education in the Department of Education, which deals extensively with higher educational mapping around the world, international educational leadership and teacher training.

Bernhard Streitwieser is an International Research Fellow of Northwestern University’s Center for Advancing Learning and Teaching. From 2010 13 he was a Visiting Professor at Berlin’s Humboldt Universität and served as acting co-chair for the Department of Comparative Education in 2012 13 and lectured on the internationalisation of higher education, student identity development and global mobility. From 2010 14 he conducted a study on the Erasmus Mobility Programme and student identity development, which was funded by grants from the Fulbright Commission and the German Academic Exchange Service. In 2012 he guest-edited a special issue (Volume 7) on comparative education and educational mobility for the journal Research in International and Comparative Education, and his publications have appeared in books by Routledge, Teachers College Press, Symposium Books and Schneider Verlag and in The International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education; Research in International and Comparative Education; Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning; European Education; Educational Research & Evaluation; the American Journal of Evaluation; and the Journal of Innovative Higher Education.

Bernd Wächter is the Chief Executive Officer of ACA, a think-tank on European and international higher education focusing on internationalisation. Together with the Board of ACA, Bernd is in charge of setting the policy directions of ACA. He is also in charge of ACA’s research agenda.

Anthony Welch is Professor of Education at the University of Sydney. He has substantial national and international project experience, and has published widely on themes such as multiculturalism, schooling and work, indigenous minorities, international students, higher education and the academic profession, and the internationalisation of (higher) education. With an MA and PhD from the University of London, he has significant experience in working abroad, including having taught and/or researched at universities in the USA, Japan, Germany, China and Vietnam. He speaks, reads and writes German, holds a Visiting Professor position at Tianjin University, China, and is author and editor of 10 books, and around 200 articles and chapters. He is currently part of an international team conducting the Comprehensive Education Sector Review for the Ministry of Education, Myanmar.

Zachary Van Winkle is a master’s student in the social sciences at Berlin’s Humboldt University and works as a student employee at the Institute for Social Sciences (Department of Empirical Social Research and the Department of Demography).

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